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Mechanical work is the product of force and the distance through which the force acts womens health care associates jacksonville nc generic 500mg xeloda visa. When gravity is the only acting external force, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies possessed by a given body remains constant. A high jumper with a body weight of 712 N exerts a force of 3 kN against the ground during takeoff. Answer the same two questions with a 100 kg coach standing on the back of the sled. Lineman A has a mass of 100 kg and is traveling with a velocity of 4 m/s when he collides head-on with lineman B, who has a mass of 90 kg and is traveling at 4. If the two skaters hold onto each other and continue to move as a unit after the collision, what will be their resultant velocity? A set of 20 stairs, each of 20 cm height, is ascended by a 700 N man in a period of 1. Calculate the mechanical work, power, and change in potential energy during the ascent. Select one sport or daily activity, and identify the ways in which the amount of friction present between surfaces in contact affects performance outcome. A 2 kg block sitting on a horizontal surface is subjected to a horizontal force of 7. If the resulting acceleration of the block is 3 m/s2, what is the magnitude of the friction force opposing the motion of the block? Explain the interrelationships among mechanical work, power, and energy within the context of a specific human motor skill. Explain in what ways mechanical work is and is not related to caloric expenditure. Include in your answer the distinction between positive and negative work and the influence of anthropometric factors. A 50 kg person performs a maximum vertical jump with an initial velocity of 2 m/s. Using the principle of conservation of mechanical energy, calculate the maximum height achieved by a 7 N ball tossed vertically upward with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. Select one of the following sport activities and speculate about the changes that take place between kinetic and potential forms of mechanical energy. Identify the principles that are illustrated, and write explanations of what is demonstrated. Following the instructions above, go to the online lab manual and click on Collisions in One Dimension. Play this simulation with all different possible combinations of variable settings. Identify the principle that is illustrated, and write an explanation of what is demonstrated. Principle: Explanation: 3. Use a spring scale to determine the magnitude of maximum static friction for each shoe on two different surfaces. Drop five different balls from a height of 2 m on two different surfaces, and carefully observe and record the bounce heights. Calculate the coefficient of restitution for each ball on each surface, and write a paragraph explaining your results. Ball Drop Height Bounce Height e 5. Using a stopwatch, time each member of your lab group running up a flight of stairs. Use a ruler to measure the height of one stair, then multiply by the number of stairs to calculate the total change in height. Group Member Wt (N) Mass (kg) Time (s) Av. Arampatzis A, Knicker A, Metzler V, and Brьggeman G: Mechanical power in running: a comparison of different approaches, J Biomech 33:457, 2000. Arampatzis A, Schade F, and Brьggemann G-P: Effect of the pole-human body interaction on pole vaulting performance, J Biomech 37:1353, 2004. Hatze H: the relationship between the coefficient of restitution and energy losses in tennis rackets, J Appl Biomech 9:124, 1993. Van de Walle P, Desloovere K, Truijen S, Gosselink R, Aerts P, and Hallemans A: Age-related changes in mechanical and metabolic energy during typical gait, Gait Posture 31:495, 2010. Voloshin A: the influence of walking speed on dynamic loading on the human musculoskeletal system, Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1156, 2000. Discusses the scientific literature related to rate of force development, elastic energy storage and utilization, and athletic performance. Reviews the scientific literature on fostering increases in muscular power through vibration training. Reviews the scientific literature on Nordic diagonal stride skiing, including the relationships of static and dynamic friction to skier weight, velocity, kicking force angle, and terrain. Discusses gender-related differential performance of female and male Olympic and World champions relative to power output applied to the environment. Identify the mechanical advantages associated with the different classes of levers and explain the concept of leverage within the human body. Define center of gravity and explain the significance of center of gravity location in the human body. What mechanical factors enable a wheelchair to remain stationary on a graded ramp or a sumo wrestler to resist the attack of his opponent?
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Trochanteric fixation should never be used women's health low testosterone symptoms 500mg xeloda otc, as it may interfere with incisions around the hip, if surgery is contemplated, the temporary traction pin should be supracondylar in the femur, with care to avoid the supra patellar pouch. The two columns anterior and posterior to the acetabular articular surface surround the femoral head, even though they may be separated by a gap. Note the split in the posterior column depicted by the fracture through the obturator foramen (white arrow). The iliac oblique (c) and anteroposterior (d) views show the fracture through the iliac crest (arrows). However, in this particular case, note that the femoral head is largely enclosed by the dome fragment. The patient rated 90 on the Harris hip scale with only minimal discomfort from the partially united posterior column (f,g). Tile Early Ambulation, Limited and Progressive Weight Bearing In fracture patterns that are stable and minimally displaced, nonoperative care consists of early mobilization, with limited and progressive weight bearing as fracture healing progresses. Typically, 1020 kg of toe touching for the first 46 weeks is followed by progression to full weight bearing at 812 weeks. Posterior wall fractures may be isolated or they may be associated with posterior column, transverse, T, or double-column fractures. Since the posterior wall injury is usually caused by a blow on the flexed knee, the surgeon must look for knee injuries, including fractures of the patella, or posterior subluxation of the knee with posterior cruciate ligament tears. Also, with posterior dislocation of the hip, a high number of transient or permanent sciatic nerve palsies may be expected. Central instability may occur when the quadrilateral plate is large enough to allow the femoral head to sublux centrally. In such cases, some form of medial buttress is essential, either a spring plate or cerclage wire. Large anterior wall fragments, either in isolation with an associated anterior dislocation (A3) or with an anterior with posterior hemitransverse pattern (B3) may be large enough to allow anterior hip instability and require operative treatment. Incongruity the word incongruity comes from the Latin congruus to fit exactly; therefore incongruity means lack of an exact fit. All major joints require congruity for good long-term function, or secondary osteoarthritis will result. This is even more important with post-traumatic joints, since direct articular change is added to the incongruity. Obviously, perfect anatomical reduction restoring normal anatomy is the ideal, but this may not be possible in all cases. Clinical significance of an incongruous fracture depends on many factors, including the location of the fracture, especially on the superior dome. Also, the size of the gap or more significantly, the size and location of the step is important. Unstable Hip Instability of the hip is most common in posterior types but may also be present with a large free fragment of the quadrilateral plate or in anterior types with anterior wall fracture. If the posterior lip of the acetabulum is significantly displaced, allowing instability of the hip joint, open Table 13. Operative indications: fracture factors (from Tile 2003) Hip unstable and/or incongruous Guidelines to be correlated to patient factors A. Fractures through the roof of the dome a) Displaced dome fragment b) Transverse or T types (transtectal) c) Both-column types with incongruity (displaced posterior column) 2. Soft tissue interposition Displacement of the Weight-Bearing Dome Displaced Dome Fractures. The hip was grossly unstable and the fracture dislocation required operative fixation. The obturator oblique view (c) and iliac oblique view (d) show the large posterior wall fragment (white arrows) and the transverse nature of the fracture. A typical large triangular fragment involving the dome portion of articular cartilage may be displaced and even rotated 90°, as shown in. Open reduction and internal fixation are essential to restore the anatomical relationship of that fragment to the remainder of the hip joint. These shearingtype injuries involving the superior portion of the dome are extremely difficult to reduce by closed means. In my opinion, these high-energy shearing injuries are extremely difficult to manage nonoperatively, because ana- tomical reduction cannot be maintained and poor results will ensue (see. If secondary congruence is not present, this type of both-column fracture is best managed by open reduction and internal fixation. Neither of these requires removal, since they do not interfere with joint function or joint congruity. With dislocation of the femoral head, large bone fragments may be avulsed, usually with an intact teres ligament. This type of injury may occur with a pure dislocation or with a concomitant acetabular fracture. If the head fragment is large enough to cause instability of the hip joint or is displaced enough to cause incongruity, it should be restored anatomically and fixed with screws. Occasionally, the posterior capsule may interpose between the femoral head and the acetabulum during reduction of a dislocation or may prevent reduction, both indications for operative care. The development of a sciatic or femoral nerve palsy after reduction of the acetabular fracture, indicating the possible entrapment of the nerve at reduction. The presence of a femoral arterial injury associated with an anterior column fracture of the acetabulum.
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Their contraction causes the hock joint to flex and the fetlock joint to extend (dorsi flex) breast cancer 5k in washington dc purchase 500mg xeloda with mastercard. Signs and Symptoms: When these muscles are tight, extension of the hoof during the protraction of the leg is limited, resulting in a shorter stride. Stress point 39 will be felt as a rigid knot of tissues below its attachment point on the tibia. They run downwards to fix on the posterior (back) aspect of the pastern Body Parts and Their Stress Points 227 bones. Signs and Symptoms: When these muscles are tight, flexion of the hoof during retraction of the leg is limited, resulting in loss of power. Stress point 40 will be felt as a rigid knot of tissues next to the attachment point on the fibula. Having a thorough knowledge of all the stress points found on the body of the horse will contribute tremendously to the quality of your massage work. Stress Point Check-up Routine the stress point check-up routine is divided into three sequences. But, before you start, to best evaluate potential stress point areas in your horse, take note of his history (type of training, accidents, traumas) and current training program (chapter 15). Second, using the stress point technique, work the whole body of the horse, spending more time on the areas showing active stress points. Remember to use hydrotherapy (cold application) over tender stress points when needed. It took a certain amount of time for these stress points to develop, so it will probably take a few treatments before you see full recovery. Take notes so that you can assess the progress of your work and its effect on the horse. After your first evaluation, you can consider giving small local treatments of 20 to 30 minutes to the most 228 Equine Massage 10. Hydrotherapy (chapter 4) and stretching exercises (chapter 8) are useful additions to these short treatments. A thorough knowledge of these 40 stress points will allow you to make more accurate evaluations and thus ensure better treatments. Remember that the whole muscle structure of the horse works simultaneously and that consequently you will most likely find more than one stress point. Palpate lightly with the tip of your thumb or fingers to determine the degree of tension and inflammation (if any heat or swelling is present) at each point. At the end of this pass, record your findings to remind yourself of the area that will need more attention. Start with the ears, massaging thoroughly from the poll down (a few inches) to the throatlatch. Feel the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and check if the vertebrae are aligned. Then weave your strokes into light effleurages going up the leg, over the shoulder, and up to the withers. Feel free to make changes in this sequence, which is only intended to give you an idea on where to start. Write down your observations before proceeding to the second phase of the stress point routine. This time use heavier massage movements such as wringings or firmer effleurages to stir up the circulation, especially in the areas that need work. Then proceed to lightly massage every stress point, spending more time on the areas that need it the most. Mostly use the stress point technique interspersed with lots of drainage moves (effleurages, compressions, wringings). If some stress points are not active, spend only enough time on them to trigger a reflex in the Golgi nerve cells; 30 seconds to a minute is plenty when the stress point is not inflamed. When dealing with active stress points, take the time to release them totally, using lighter pressure for a longer period of time; some chronic stress points might take from 2 to 3 minutes. Be careful not to overwork the muscle tissues, and remember to drain thoroughly with effleurages every 20 to 30 seconds. Depending on the origin of the stress point, it may take 1 to 5 massage sessions to release it completely. During this second pass, depending on the level of stress in the animal worked on, you might spend from 30 minutes to over an hour all together working the various stress points on both sides of the horse. As you go over the active stress points you should feel them relieved, showing less tightness or inflammation. Stress points will show tremendous improvement after only one massage session, unless the problem was caused by a direct trauma or an old injury. Several sessions will produce a better effect and give the horse time to become accustomed to this form of deep work. As you develop a schedule of treatments for the horse and become familiar with his common areas of stress, you might reduce the check-up routine to half-hour sessions, working only stress points that particularly need it. If inflammation is present, use cold hydrotherapy to soothe the nerve endings and assist circulation. It is good for the animal to have a little exercise (for 5 minutes) after such treatment (longeing, walk/trot) unless contraindicated. Stretching exercises performed regularly will allow for a more complete treatment.
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